Because of its sheer size, vibrant online commerce and social networks, and scant privacy protections, the country is awash in data, the lifeblood of deep learning systems. The fact that AI is a young field also works in China's favor, argues Chen Yunji, by encouraging a burgeoning academic effort that has put China within striking distance of the United States, long the leader in AI research. But for computer science, it's a relatively new thing.
Arrest If the suspect has not been arrested: If the suspect has not been arrested it's important to determine why not, and to determine if, indeed, there should have been an arrest. Most states in the US have pro-arrest policies when there is probable cause of domestic violence, as do most individual jurisdictions.
Knowing the laws and policies governing your police should make it fairly easy in most cases for you to determine whether or not there should have been an arrest in your client's case.
As mentioned earlier, it's critical for advocates to have copies of, and be familiar, with your local jurisdiction's written law enforcement policies on domestic violence and sexual assault. In general, in California, if there is any injury to the victim, "no matter how slight", police should make an arrest.
If you feel there should have been an arrest in your client's case, and there was not, call the on-duty sergeant or call the head of the police domestic violence unit and ask why there was no arrest.
When you make these calls, it's always a good idea to take notes on the answers you're given, especially if the answers are ridiculous. Also, make sure that a crime report was actually written, and that the crime report has been, or is being sent up to the district attorney's office.
If, after looking at the case, the ranking officer argues that the responding officer was correct in not making an arrest, but you still believe the suspect should have been arrested, you'll need to escalate your advocacy strategies to make the arrest happen.
One common legitimate reason police may not have made an arrest, even if there was sufficient evidence for an arrest, is that the suspect fled the scene and couldn't be found. Once the suspect has managed to evade police and police have moved on to their next call, police will rarely double back and go looking for the suspect.
However, if your client is able to determine the suspect's whereabouts and then gives this information to police, police will often follow-up on the information and make the arrest. So if your client's up to it, have her dig around a bit to the extent that it's safe, and then get the information to the police, and, if necessary, push police to make the arrest.
Since victims know the suspect well, if they're willing to make a few calls, they can usually come up with the suspect's whereabouts in no time.
In addition, if the suspect has not been arrested because he has fled the scene, check to make sure the officer has issued a 'stop and hold order'. A 'stop and hold order' is an order put out over the police communication system giving notice to other officers that the suspect of given description should be detained.
If the suspect was not arrested because there was no injury, ask the victim if she was informed by the officer, as is required by most law enforcement domestic violence policies, that the victim had the right to make a citizens arrest. If the officer didn't so inform the victim, you and she should complain to the department.
In Rape and Child Molest Cases police rarely make an arrest right after the victim has made the report. One reason this is so is because it generally takes some time to develop the kind of evidence needed to prove a case of sexual assault.
Another reason is that some of the common sexual assault investigative techniques, such as pretext calls, can only be done if the defendant is not in custody.
For more discussion of these issues, see the section on sex crimes. Victims of rape and child molestation are usually very upset and concerned that the suspect isn't arrested immediately after the victim makes the report. Sex crimes victims often take the lack of arrest to mean that the police don't believe her.
Her friends and family also come to the same unfortunate conclusion that this means police don't believe the victim's story about the sexual assault. This easily leads to increased erosion of a sex crimes victim's already fragile support system.
In addition to concerns that police don't believe them, the lack of immediate arrest also makes sex crimes victims very fearful that the perpetrator is still out there able to retaliate against her for having made the report. This victim fear is legitimate. Since most sex crimes perpetrators know their victims well, and since perpetrator and victim usually have important shared social circles, sex crimes perpetrators frequently launch all kinds of retaliatory attacks against the victim, from harassment campaigns, to organizing their shared social circle against her, to threats and attacks of bodily harm.
Advocates should routinely have this discussion with their client even if the client doesn't specifically ask about it. It is also critical to remind sexual assault victims that every and all harassment or retaliation by the perpetrator should be reported to the detective or prosecutor assigned to the case.
Remember, too, that any and all attempts to dissuade a witness from testifying or attempts to get the victim to change her testimony are a crime, whether committed by the perpetrator or by anyone else.
Advocates should insist that police write a crime report and investigate every such incident.Today’s world is more interconnected than ever before.
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Since most sex crimes perpetrators know their victims well, and since perpetrator and victim usually have important shared social circles, sex crimes perpetrators frequently launch all kinds of retaliatory attacks against the victim, from harassment campaigns, to organizing their shared social circle against her, to threats and attacks of bodily harm.
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