How emotions influence pain perception in chronic pain November 22, by BiM Emotions change how we perceive pain. Healthy participants rate painful experimental stimuli during the viewing of positive pictures as less intense and unpleasant than those experienced while viewing negative pictures. This has been tested in a number of studies, which generally report pain decreasing effects for positive emotions in healthy subjects; however, the data on negative emotions is not as clear.
The pattern of these results was not affected by the timing or measurement of pain catastrophizing. Discussion The current study examined several components of the fear-avoidance model FAM in an experimental pain context, while taking into consideration recent advances concerning the assessment of pain catastrophizing.
Although the full model was not tested, to our knowledge this is the first investigation to consider these conceptual and measurement issues in the context of the FAM. Experimental paradigms permit greater control over pain stimuli and allow for measurement of multiple pain indices, which are important advantages in the study of relationships between pain and psychological variables.
Results indicated pain-related fear was a consistently stronger predictor of experimental pain indices compared to catastrophizing. These findings largely replicate those from our previous study. That pain-related fear played such a prominent role in this context was not surprising.
The theoretical and empirical literature is replete with articles highlighting the role of fear in the experience of pain see recent review by Leeuw et al Indeed, fear is an important element of many biopsychosocial models of pain and disability, such as the FAM.
We were surprised, however, that pain catastrophizing did not emerge as a significant factor in this study. Catastrophizing has been shown to be related to pain perception in experimental paradigms.
Few studies have concurrently considered both constructs in experimental Fear pain and perception. This is now the Fear pain and perception study, to our knowledge, indicating fear is a stronger predictor than catastrophizing in this context. It is also possible these constructs have more complex relationships than those examined herein.
Future work including theory-driven mediational analyses may yield important results, although the magnitude and significance of the present bivariate coefficients suggests any mediational relationships between these variables would be rather modest.
Regardless, at this point it seems prudent for future experimental pain studies to include fear among the other more frequently assessed psychological variables eg, depression and catastrophizing. Although caution is due when extrapolating from the experimental to the clinical setting, these data support the notion that fear is an important feature of the clinical pain experience.
Although closely related and likely to be responsive to similar interventions, explicit targeting of pain-related fear should be considered in the treatment of pain.
Catastrophizing has received increased focus of late see the treatment protocol of Thorn and colleagues 3839and we agree with the importance placed on this cognitive process. The convergence of the current findings with many of these clinical studies provides additional support for the external validity of this study.
We found little difference between two common measures of pain catastrophizing — CSQ-CAT and PCS — and their association with several indices of experimental pain; neither was significantly related to pain after controlling for fear.
This was counter to our hypothesis that the PCS would be more strongly related to pain due to its broader conceptualization of catastrophizing than the unidimensional CSQ-CAT. Although the PCS may be preferable on theoretical grounds see Sullivan et al 35 and Turner and Leslie 40there is not extensive data on the practical implications of the differences between instruments.
At this point, decisions regarding the choice of instrument should perhaps be guided more by the purpose of the assessment than concerns about relative measurement quality. For example, if one is interested solely in the construct of catastrophizing, the PCS may be preferred since it is briefer and multidimensional.
If, however, one intends to measure various pain-coping strategies, the CSQ may be preferred since it includes other domains eg, distraction, ignoring. In addition to the instrument issue, we sought to contribute to the emerging literature concerning the timing and instructions regarding catastrophizing assessment.
Perhaps this is due to our inclusion of pain-related fear in the analyses. It is also possible measurement timing and instruction are less important than initial indications.
Since few studies have addressed this issue, we caution against drawing strong conclusions at this point. Continued research is needed to further elucidate the role of timing and instruction in pain catastrophizing assessment.
An additional issue warranting further study is the role of sex in this context. An emerging literature indicates the relationships among pain and psychological variables differ for males and females.
George and colleagues 11 found although men and women had similar physical therapy outcomes for disability, the factors predicting outcome differed between them.
Most relevant to the current study, fear of pain and activity predicted change in disability for men but not women. Somewhat to the contrary, Hirsh and colleagues 16 found the pain-disability relationship to be more direct in males, whereas in females, psychological factors served a mediating role.The pain perception threshold is the point at which the stimulus begins to hurt, and the pain tolerance threshold is reached when the subject acts to stop the pain.
|Pain - Wikipedia||Sensation and Perception Literature Review Psychology 18 April Fear and pain constitute two of the most commonly misinterpreted concepts in human perception.|
|Fear - Wikipedia||Received May 26; Accepted Aug 6.|
|Fear and Pain | Mindbody Pain Clinics||Sensation and Perception Literature Review Psychology 18 April Fear and pain constitute two of the most commonly misinterpreted concepts in human perception.|
Many people fear the stigma of addiction, and avoid pain treatment so as not to be prescribed potentially addicting drugs. Fear and pain constitute two of the most commonly misinterpreted concepts in human perception.
When we are in a state of fear can we sense pain more or less acutely? It is commonly believed that amygdalitic coherence channels pain from the so-called 'fear centers' via the relatively well understood epineuronic and pseudoneuronic mechanisms.4/4(1).
In this follow-up study, we examined the relationships between fear of pain, pain catastrophizing, and experimental pain perception. One hundred healthy volunteers completed the Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FPQ-III), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and Coping Strategies Questionnaire-Catastrophizing scale (CSQ-CAT) before undergoing the cold.
The fear response arises from the perception of danger leading to confrontation with or escape from/avoiding the threat Earlier, in , a link between odors released by stressed rats and pain perception was discovered: unstressed rats exposed to these . Pain perception, aversion and fear in fish - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free.
Previous studies of the Fear-Avoidance Model of Exaggerated Pain Perception have commonly included patients with chronic low back pain, making it difficult to determine which psychological factors.