Evolution[ edit ] Frederick Jackson Turner, c. They adapted to the new physical, economic and political environment in certain ways—the cumulative effect of these adaptations was Americanization. Successive generations moved further inland, shifting the lines of settlement and wilderness, but preserving the essential tension between the two.
Franklin used the words frontier and West interchangeably and generally equated both of them with free land.
He believed that the West was decisive in producing the phenomenal population growth of the society of his day and its "middle-class agrarianism. His political and diplomatic exertions contributed considerably to insure that the West would be a part of the new nation he was helping to create.
Turner drew on his knowledge of evolution, and his own research into the fur trade frontier. The thesis dominated much of scholarship until the s. It was then challenged by the "New Western Historians," who ignored its valid conclusions but instead charged that it ignored ethnic minorities and women and was too praiseworthy of the pioneers.
Evolutionary model Turner set up an evolutionary model he had studied evolution with a leading geologistusing the time dimension of American history, and the geographical space of the land that became the United States.
His argument was that the new environment had caused a rapid evolution of social and political characteristics, thereby creating the true "American. They encountered a new environmental challenge that was quite different from what they had known.
The most important difference was vast amounts of unused high quality farmland some of which was used by a few thousand Indians for hunting grounds.
They adapted to the new environment in certain ways — the sum of all the adaptations over the years would make them Americans. The next generation moved further inland. It discarded more European aspects that were no longer useful, for example established churches, established aristocracies, intrusive government, and control of the best land by a small gentry class.
Every generation moved further west and became more American, and the settlers became more democratic and less tolerant of hierarchy. They became more violent, more individualistic, more distrustful of authority, less artistic, less scientific, and more dependent on ad-hoc organizations they formed themselves.
In broad terms, the further west, the more American the community. And because American life came increasingly to differ from European life, American ideas, American agencies of intellectual life, and the use made of knowledge likewise came to differ in America from their European counterparts.
Women The legal status of women in the 19th century trans-Mississippi West has drawn the attention of numerous interpreters, whose analyses fall into three types: It explained why the American people and American government were so different from Europeans. It sounded an alarming note about the future, since the U.
Census of had officially stated that the American frontier line separating the more-settled and lighty settled zones had broken up.
Some talked about overseas expansion as a new frontier; others like John F. Kennedy called for a "new frontier" of achievement. Valid Interpretation of American History? The major attacks and defenses of Turner. Strange Roads Going Down. Under an Open Sky: Rereading Frederick Jackson Turner: Milner, and Charles E.
Historical Interpretations, Nichols, Roger L. American Frontier and Western Issues: The Mythology of the American Frontier,complex literary reinterpretation of the frontier myth from its origins in Europe to Daniel Boone excerpt and text search Slotkin, Richard.
The Frontier in American History."The New and (Somewhat) Improved Frontier Thesis," Reviews in American History Volume 35, Number 4, December online at Project Muse Hine, Robert V. and John Mack Faragher. Frontiers: A Short History of the American West (), recent textbook excerpt and text search.
Excerpts from writings of Frederick Jackson Turner, ss. Frederick Jackson Turner is most famous for expounding the influential “Frontier Thesis” of American history, a thesis he first introduced in and which he expanded upon for the remainder of his scholarly career.
The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis is the conclusion of Frederick Jackson Turner that the wellsprings of American character and vitality have always been the American frontier, the region between civilized society and the untamed timberdesignmag.com the thesis, the frontier created freedom, "breaking the bonds of custom, offering new experiences, [and] calling out new institutions and activities.".
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content. TURNERS FRONTIER THESIS AND THE MODERN AMERICAN EMPIRE: A Review Essay Lloyd E. Ambrosius William Appleman Williams, in his latest book, The Roots of the Modern American Empire,1 examined die nineteenth-century origins of American foreign relations during the twentieth century.
frontier is, that it lies at the hither edge of free land. In the census reports it is treated as the margin of that settlement which has a density of two or more to the square mile. The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis, is the argument advanced by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in that American democracy was formed by the American frontier.
He stressed the process—the moving frontier line—and the impact it had on pioneers going through the process.