Led by Spain, the world's top olive producers form a ring around the Mediterranean Sea. Olive trees in Greece. The ancient olive production originated in the Near East around Mediterranean area, particularly Iberia, where it was introduced by the Phoenicians and the Greeks. Olive oil production peaked at the height of the prosperous Roman Empire.
Oil press in the Israeli settlement Katzrin Grinder with two millstones and in the foreground several fiber disks Olive paste after stone crushing is being applied to fiber mats in Sicily Press with stack of fiber disks People have used olive presses since Greeks first began pressing olives over 5, years ago.
The oil and vegetation water are then separated by standard decantation. This basic method is still widely used today, and it is still a valid way of producing high quality olive oil if adequate precautions are taken. First the olives are ground into an olive paste using large millstones at an oil mill.
This has three objectives: Ensure that olives are well ground Allow enough time for the olive drops to join to form the largest droplets of oil Allow the fruit enzymes to produce some of the oil aromas and taste Olive oil mills very rarely use a modern crushing method with a traditional press.
After grinding, the olive paste is spread on fiber disks, which Production of olive oil stacked on top of each other, then placed into the press. Traditionally the disks were made of hemp or coconut fiber, but in modern times they are made of synthetic fibers which are easier to clean and maintain.
These disks are then put on a hydraulic piston, forming a pile. Pressure is applied on the disks, thus compacting the solid phase of the olive paste and percolating the liquid phases oil and vegetation water.
To facilitate separation of the liquid phases, water is run down the sides of the disks to increase the speed of percolation. The liquids are then separated either by a standard process of decantation or by means of a faster vertical centrifuge.
The traditional method is a valid form of producing high-quality olive oil, if after each extraction the disks are properly cleaned from the remains of paste; if not the leftover paste will begin to ferment, thereby producing inconsistencies of flavors called defects that will contaminate the subsequently produced olive oil.
A similar problem can affect the grindstones that, in order to assure perfect quality, also require cleaning after each usage. Advantages and disadvantages[ edit ] Proper cleaning produces higher-quality oil.
This reduces the release of the oil oxidation enzymes present in these organs. In addition, in this extraction method, the introduction of water is minimal when compared to the modern one, thus reducing the washing-off of the polyphenols. The exhausted paste, called pomacehas a low content of water, making it an easier residue to manage.
Advantages Better grinding of the olives, reducing the release of oil oxidation enzymes Reduced added water, minimizing the washing of polyphenols Pomace with a low content of water easier to manage Disadvantages Non-continuous process with waiting periods thus exposes the olive paste to oxygen and light Requires more manual labor Decanter centrifugation[ edit ] The modern method of olive oil extraction uses an industrial decanter to separate all the phases by centrifugation.
In this method the olives are crushed to a fine paste. This can be done by a hammer crusher, disc crusher, depitting machine or knife crusher.
This paste is then malaxed for 30 to 60 minutes in order to allow the small olive droplets to agglomerate. The aromas are created in these two steps through the action of fruit enzymes. Afterwards the paste is pumped into an industrial decanter where the phases will be separated.
Water is added to facilitate the extraction process with the paste. Diagram of a working decanter. The three phases are separated according to their densities. Three, two, and two and a half phases decanters[ edit ] With the three phases oil decanter, a portion of the oil polyphenols is washed out due to the higher quantity of added water when compared to the traditional methodproducing a larger quantity of vegetation water that needs to be processed.
The two phases oil decanter was created as an attempt to solve these problems. Sacrificing part of its extraction capability, it uses less added water thus reducing the phenol washing.This statistic shows the production volume of olive oil worldwide from /13 to /18 and provides a forecast for / In /16, the global production volume of olive oil amounted to 3.
The olive and the tree on which it grows have been revered since ancient times. Archaeological digs have unearthed evidence that olive trees existed on the island of Crete in B.C.
The Semitic peoples were cultivating the tree's fruit by B.C. They particularly liked to use the oil of the. This chart represents the annual olive oil production in Italy in thousand tons in the period from to According to this statistic, peak production took place in the crop year / Olive oil is a favorite ingredient in a variety of cuisine types found around the world.
Olive oil is a liquescent fat extracted from olives tree, mostly grown in Mediterranean Basin since the 8th millennium BC. Olive oil productions vary from different countries as the list below shows. According. Olive Oil Production Up More Than 25 Percent, Consumption Edges Higher In its monthly newsletter, the International Olive Council released its preliminary data for the /18 harvest season, which indicates increases in production, consumption and imports.
Olive oil was used for a variety of purposes, including lamp fuel, pharmaceutical ointment and in rituals for anointing royalty, warriors and others.
The term "messiah", used in many Mediterranean-based religions, means "the anointed one", perhaps (but of course, not necessarily) referring to an olive oil-based ritual.