Origin[ edit ] There is not yet an analytic proof of color confinement in any non-abelian gauge theory.
The baryons and mesons are complex subatomic particles built from more-elementary objects, the quarks. Six types of quark, together with their corresponding antiquarks, are Quarks creation to account for all the known hadrons. Each carries a fractional value of the electron charge i.
First, quarks had to have half-integer spin intrinsic angular momentum values for the model to workbut at the same time they seemed to violate the Pauli exclusion principlewhich governs the behaviour of all particles called fermions having odd half-integer spin.
In many of the baryon configurations constructed of quarks, sometimes two or even three identical quarks had to be set in the same quantum state—an arrangement prohibited by the exclusion principle. Second, quarks appeared to defy being freed from the particles they made up.
Although the forces binding quarks were strong, it seemed improbable that they were powerful enough to withstand bombardment by high-energy particle beams from accelerators.
These problems were resolved by the introduction of the concept of colouras formulated in quantum chromodynamics QCD. In this theory of strong interactions, whose breakthrough ideas were published incolour has nothing to do with the colours of the everyday world but rather represents a property of quarks that is the source of the strong force.
The colours red, green, and blue are ascribed to quarks, and their opposites, antired, antigreen, and antiblue, are ascribed to antiquarks. According to QCD, all combinations of quarks must contain mixtures of these imaginary colours that cancel out one another, with the resulting particle having no net colour.
A baryon, for example, always consists of a combination of one red, one green, and one blue quark and so never violates the exclusion principle. The property of colour in the strong force plays a role analogous to that of electric charge in the electromagnetic forceand just as charge implies the exchange of photons between charged particles, so does colour involve the exchange of massless particles called gluons among quarks.
Just as photons carry electromagnetic force, gluons transmit the forces that bind quarks together. Quarks change their colour as they emit and absorb gluons, and the exchange of gluons maintains proper quark colour distribution.
This condition is called asymptotic freedom.
When one begins to draw the quarks apart, however, as when attempting to knock them out of a proton, the effect of the force grows stronger.
This is because, as explained by QCD, gluons have the ability to create other gluons as they move between quarks.
The larger the number of gluons exchanged among quarks, the stronger the effective binding forces become. Supplying additional energy to extract the quark only results in the conversion of that energy into new quarks and antiquarks with which the first quark combines.
In two independent groups of scientists at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory reported that they had found the top quark. Their results give the top quark a mass of The next heaviest quark, the bottom, has a mass of about 4.These six quark flavours can be grouped in three pairs: up and down, charm and strange, and top and bottom.
Quarks appear to be true elementary particles; that is, they have no apparent structure and cannot be resolved into something smaller.
As of 4 June , new results from the two independently run particle detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland, establish the associated production of the . modifier - modifier le code - modifier Wikidata Le proton est une particule subatomique portant une charge élémentaire positive.
Les protons sont présents dans le noyau atomique, éventuellement liés avec des neutrons par l' interaction forte (le noyau de l' isotope le plus répandu de l' hydrogène, 1 H +, est un simple proton) ; le proton est .
Sattva, Raja, and Tama are the spiritual basic components of creation/universe. Everything that exists is made of and affected by them, including ourselves.
Zoom from the edge of the universe to the quantum foam of spacetime and learn about everything in between. We identify the creation and evolution of information structures in four important cosmic epochs.