PRG has assisted numerous organizations and initiatives working to 1 raise public awareness of the both the extraterrestrial presence and the truth embargo, 2 convene open congressional hearings to take government and agency witness testimony, and 3 incite the political media to appropriately cover the attendant issues. There can be only one outcome to the Disclosure advocacy movement — the formal acknowledgement of the extraterrestrial presence by world governments. In Bassett decided to bring a year background in business development and consulting and a degree in physics into the issues surrounding extraterrestrial-related phenomena.
Every research uses one of the research paradigms to use as a guideline for developing research methodology and to take on the research venture in a manner that is most valid and appropriate.
Though basically there are two paradigms but there are several other paradigms emerged from these two especially in the social science research. One of the paradigms that emerged in the recent years is the mixed-method research.
In pure sciences, quantitative research methodology is clearly the most favored approach to conducting the research. In social sciences, there has been debate for over half a decade about the best methodology to use and this resulted in the emergence of mixed-method paradigm or mixed-method methodology.
Since that time a debate between scientists regarding the best paradigm to conduct the research has always been there. Until s scientists believed that quantitative research paradigm is the only paradigm or research approach that should be Research paradigm in both pure science and social science research.
Types of Research Paradigm Positivist Paradigm Most of the scientific or quantitative research use positivism as a conceptual framework for research. Quantitative research always follows positivist approach because positivists believe in the empirical hypothesis testing. In pure sciences, positivism is preferred because of its empirical nature to study facts.
Positivists believe that the findings of one study can be generalized to another study of a similar kind regardless of it is conducted in a different environment and situations. This is true of scientific variables like volume, speed, density, strength, and weight.
For example, if a scientific study proves the hypothesis that if a certain finish is applied to a fine cotton tulle fabric it will lose some of its natural strength, these results can be generalized to another similar fabric that gets the same after-finish. When talking about social and behavioral sciences quantitative researchers believe that any human behavior can be studied and predicted quantitatively and they believe that behavior can be explained using a scientific approach to research.
To achieve a controlled environment the researcher has to conduct the research in a laboratory setting like a scientific experiment, though the human behavior is difficult to study in a controlled environment, this makes it difficult for the social science researcher to use a positivist paradigm in the study of human behavior.
Interpretivists believe that human behavior is multilayered and it cannot be determined by pre-defined probabilistic models. It depends on the situations and is determined by environmental factors other than the genes.
A human behavior is quite unlike a scientific variable which is easy to control. Human behaviors are affected by several factors and are mostly subjective in nature. Therefore interpretivistic believe in studying human behavior in the daily life rather than in the controlled environment.
Distinction between Positivism and Interpretivism To summarize positivism and interpretivism we can say that positivism is governed by objectivity, measurability, predictability, probability, controllability and control laws that can predict human behavior.
On the other hand, anti-positivism or interpretivism is governed by subjectivity and studying human behavior in a real-life setting. Though, both of these paradigms are opposite of each other they represent the reality in two different manners, both of them have their own value and significance in the growth and development of knowledge.
References Cohen, Louis, et al.Exploring the philosophical underpinnings of research: Relating ontology and epistemology to the methodology and methods of the scientific, interpretive, and critical research paradigms. English Language Teaching, 5(9), pp.9– The studies of violence in mass media analyzes the degree of correlation between themes of violence in media sources (particularly violence in video games, television and films) with real-world aggression and violence over timberdesignmag.com social scientists support the correlation.
However, some scholars argue that media research has methodological problems and that findings are exaggerated.(Ferguson.
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Planetary and Social Paradigm Analysis and Discussion. A research paradigm is a conceptual framework that researchers use to conduct the research. The two basic research paradigms are positivism and interpretivism. About Paradigm Research Optics.
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Chapter I: Introduction. Development of Personal Interest in the Topic.