During the pontificate of Gregory I the Greatthe medieval papacy began to assert its authority.
A full history of the papacy would have four aspects. This central doctrine, which began emerging in the 3rd century, has been both powerful and controversial. Second, the papacy is an institution; papal history must therefore treat the bureaus and offices by means of which the popes have exercised their authority.
Third, as a quasi-state, the papacy has entertained complex relations with numerous political entities—empires, kingdoms, principalities, and cities. These themes are always but somewhat differently evident in the major periods into which papal history can be divided. The papacy emerged as a self-conscious institution in the 3rd century but functioned openly only afterwhen Constantine I granted Christianity toleration in the Roman Empire.
In the 4th and 5th centuries the papacy began to elaborate both a theology of leadership and a set of institutions, both of which proved controversial. The popes opened relations with various Germanic kingdoms and in the 8th century allied with the Franks. With the decline of Frankish authority in the 9th century, the popes were entangled in the tumultuous politics of Rome, and the western church was increasingly brought under lay control.
In the 11th century, reform-minded popes struggled to improve clerical morality and free the church from lay control. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the so-called Papal Monarchy emerged. The popes of this era were powerful and confident.
They both built and reformed institutions while also newly articulating the ideology of papal leadership. In the late 13th century, a conflict between France and the papacy opened a host of challenges to traditional forms of papal rule.
For several decades — the popes were resident in Avignon.
Worse was yet to come. When the papacy attempted to return to Rome, factions among the cardinals disagreed, and during the Great Schism there were rival claimants to the papacy in both Rome and Avignon, and occasionally elsewhere too.
The Schism further weakened the ideological and practical bases of papal authority. The Council of Constance brought the Schism to an end inbut the subsequent Renaissance papacy proved to be a kind of institution very different from its predecessor.
General Overviews The writing of papal history emerged in the ferocious polemics of the Reformation era. For many years, such histories tended to be confessional and partisan.
Massive papal histories HallerMann — were fairly common years ago but they have been rare in recent decades. Several single-volume treatments DuffySchimmelpfennigSeppeltUllmannHerbersWhalen can be recommended and have, not surprisingly, different strengths and weaknesses.
The sheer scale of the subject has tended to result in studies of specific reigns, periods, and problems. Many of these books are included in the chronological sections of this article. Noble constitutes a historiographical reflection on late antique and early medieval papal history.
Sisson and Larson presents a topically arranged companion to various aspects of the papacy with a focus on the High Middle Ages and the late Middle Ages. A History of the Popes.The most striking development in the papacy during the High Middle Ages was A) doctrinal confusion.
B) the rivalry between monasteries and the church hierarchy. C) the expansion of its institutions. D) its increasing subordination to the state.
E) the increasing centralized power in the hands of the popes. Oct 25, · During the thousand years of the Middle Ages, from the fall of Rome to the Renaissance, the papacy matured and established itself as the preeminent authority over the church.
Religious life assumed new forms or reformed established ones, and missionaries expanded the geographic boundaries of the faith. Start studying Chapters Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Search. During the High Middle Ages, fields were rotated over a _____ the papacy. was moved to Avignon, France. The largest multiethnic empire of the premodern world was.
Separation of Christianity Conversion of The issue of violence in mass media in the united states Medieval Europe The Early Middle Ages - AD After the fall of the Roman Empire the Nobles of Europe came to power with the help of the Benefits from democracy in south africa Roman Catholic Popes A detailed history of the a discussion on the idea of charity European Renaissance including.
The history of the papacy, the office held by the pope as head of the Roman Catholic Church, according to Catholic doctrine, spans from the time of Peter to the present day. During the Early Church, the bishops of Rome enjoyed no temporal power until the time of Constantine.
The history of the papacy can be divided into five major periods: the early papacy, from Peter through Pelagius II (until ); the medieval papacy, from Gregory I through Boniface VIII (–); the Renaissance and Reformation papacy, from Benedict XI through Pius IV (–); the early modern papacy, from Pius V through Clement .