That pretext came in Julywhen tensions between Chinese troops and Japanese troops engaged in military exercises on occupied Chinese territory produced an exchange of firing near Peking now Beijing.
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June Learn how and when to remove this template message In Augustthe Japanese army invaded Shanghai where they met strong resistance and suffered heavy casualties.
The battle was bloody as both sides faced attrition in urban hand-to-hand combat. By mid-November the Japanese had captured Shanghai with the help of naval bombardment.
The General Staff Headquarters in Tokyo initially decided not to expand the war due to heavy casualties and low troop morale. Relocation of the capital After losing the Battle of Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek knew that the fall of Nanjing was a matter of time.
He and his staff realized that they could not risk the annihilation of their elite troops in a symbolic but hopeless defense of the capital. To preserve the army for future battles, most of it was withdrawn. Chiang's strategy was to follow the suggestion of his German advisers to draw the Japanese army deep into China and use China's vast territory as a defensive strength.
Chiang planned to fight a protracted war of attrition to wear down the Japanese in the hinterland of China. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources.
June In a press release to foreign reporters, Tang Shengzhi announced the city would not surrender and would fight to the death. Tang gathered aboutsoldiers, largely untrained, including Chinese troops who had participated in the Battle of Shanghai.
To prevent civilians from fleeing the city, he ordered troops to guard the port, as instructed by Chiang Kai-shek.
The defense force blocked roads, destroyed boats, and burnt nearby villages, preventing widespread evacuation.
The Chinese government left for relocation on December 1, and the president left on December 7, leaving the fate of Nanjing to an International Committee led by John Rabe.
From this gunboat, Rabe sent two telegrams. The first was through an American ambassador in Hankow to Chiang, asking that Chinese forces "undertake no military operations" within Nanjing. The second telegram was sent through Shanghai to Japanese military leaders, advocating for a three-day cease-fire so the Chinese could withdraw from the city.
The following day, on December 10, Rabe got his answer from the Generalissimo. The American ambassador in Hankow replied that although he supported Rabe's proposal for a cease-fire, Chiang did not.
Rabe says that the ambassador also "sent us a separate confidential telegram telling us that he has been officially informed by the Foreign Ministry in Hankow that our understanding that General Tang agreed to a three-day armistice and the withdrawal of his troops from Nanjing is mistaken, and moreover that Chiang Kai-shek has announced that he is not in a position to accept such an offer.
Nanjing had been constantly bombed for days and the Chinese troops that remained there were disheartened and had taken to drinking before the city's inevitable fall. On December 11, Rabe found that Chinese soldiers were still residing in areas of the Safety Zone, meaning that it became an intended target for Japanese attack despite the majority were innocent civilians.
Rabe commented on how efforts to remove these Chinese troops failed and Japanese soldiers began to lob grenades into the refugee zone. Many atrocities were reported to have been committed as the Japanese army advanced from Shanghai to Nanjing.
According to one Japanese journalist embedded with Imperial forces at the time, "The reason that the [10th Army] is advancing to Nanjing quite rapidly is due to the tacit consent among the officers and men that they could loot and rape as they wish.
Targets within and outside of the city walls — such as military barracks, private homes, the Chinese Ministry of Communication, forests and even entire villages — were completely burnt down, at an estimated value of 20 to 30 million US dollars.
Nanking Safety Zone Many Westerners were living in the city at that time, conducting trade or on missionary trips. As the Japanese army approached Nanjing, most of them fled the city, leaving 27 foreigners.
Five of these were journalists who remained in the city a few days after it was captured, leaving the city on December Fifteen of the remaining 22 foreigners formed a committee, called the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone in the western quarter of the city.Nanking Massacre denial is the denial that Imperial Japanese forces murdered hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers and civilians during the Second Sino-Japanese War, a highly controversial episode in Sino-Japanese relations.
Nanjing Massacre: Nanjing Massacre, the mass killing and ravaging of Chinese citizens by Japanese Imperial Army soldiers in , during the Sino-Japanese War. Nanking Massacre. Home; History of Massacre; Other Articles.
THE RAPE OF NANKING OR NANJING MASSACRE 1 The Japanese invasion of China in Having already seized and annexed China’s Manchurian region () and Jehol province (), the Japanese were waiting for a pretext to invade and occupy the whole of China. And few of the atrocities committed in Asia during World War II were as terrible as the Nanking Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking.
While Europe was struggling to hold off the Nazi war machine, China was fending off the Japanese invasion that first launched in late The Nanking Massacre, The Japanese occupation of Nanking, the capital of the Republic of China, lead to one of the greatest horrors of the century.
This eyewitness report was filed by a . Words like "Nanjing" and "Nanking" are regarded as interchangeable. About This website was originally submitted by Masato Kajimoto in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Arts in the Graduate School of Journalism of the University of Missouri-Columbia in August